Ghana, which lies at the center of the earth where the Greenwich Meridian meets the equator, borders three countries:
- Burkina Faso (602 km) to the north
- Ivory Coast (720 km) to the west
- Togo (1,098 km) to the east
To the south are the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Guinea.
Its southernmost coast at Cape Three Points is 4° 30′ north of the equator. From here, the country extends inland for some 670 kilometers to about 11° north. The distance across the widest part, between longitude 1° 12′ east and longitude 3° 15′ west, measures 560 kilometers.
The Greenwich Meridian, which passes through London, also traverses the eastern part of Ghana at Tema.
Ghana encompasses plains, low hills, rivers, Lake Volta, the world’s largest artificial lake, Dodi Island, and Bobowasi Island on the south Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana. Ghana can be divided into four different geographical ecoregions. The coastline is mostly a low, sandy shore backed by plains and scrub and intersected by several rivers and streams. The northern part of Ghana features high plains. South-west and south-central Ghana are made up of a forested plateau region consisting of the Ashanti uplands and the Kwahu Plateau. The hilly Akwapim-Togo ranges are found along Ghana’s eastern international border.
The Volta Basin takes up most of south-central Ghana, and Ghana’s highest point is Mount Afadja, which is 885 m (2,904 ft) and is found in the Akwapim-Togo ranges. The climate is tropical, and the eastern coastal belt is warm and comparatively dry, the south-west corner of Ghana is warm and wet, and the north of Ghana is hot and humid. Lake Volta, the world’s largest artificial lake, extends through small portions of south-eastern Ghana, and many tributary rivers such as the Oti and Afram rivers flow into it.
The northernmost part of Ghana is Pulmakong, and the southernmost part of Ghana is Cape, three points near Axim. Ghana lies between latitudes 4° and 12°N. South Ghana contains evergreen and semi-deciduous forests consisting of trees such as mahogany, Odum, ebony, and it also contains much of Ghana’s oil palms and mangroves with shea trees, baobabs, and acacias found in the northern part of Ghana.
Ghana’s climate is tropical, and there are two main seasons: the wet and dry seasons. North Ghana experiences its rainy season from April to mid-October, while Southern Ghana experiences its rainy season from March to mid-November. The eastern coastal belt is warm and comparatively dry, the south-west corner of Ghana is warm and wet, and the north of Ghana is hot and humid.
Average daily temperatures range from 30°C (86°F) during the day to 24°C (75°F) at night with a relative humidity between 77 percent and 85 percent. There is a bi-modal rainy season in the southern part of Ghana: April through June and September through November. Squalls occur in the northern part of Ghana during March and April, followed by occasional rain until August and September, when the rainfall reaches its peak. Rainfall ranges from 78 to 216 centimeters (31 to 85 inches) a year.
For more information on Ghana and it’s Geography, visit the Ministry of Tourism, Arts and Culture